Is it unlawful in the United States to sell passwords of other people?
If the passwords were obtained through malicious attacks on an organization's database, does that affect the legality?
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Assuming here that this is without the permission of the current account-holder. As discussed above, from a tort law angle there would be some confusion as to who owned the password in the first place. However, under US Federal Criminal Law, such action is explicitly criminalized: Title 18 USC§ 1030(a)(6)(A) [Computer Fraud and Abuse Act] provides that:
(6) [Whoever] knowingly and with intent to defraud traffics (as defined in section 1029) in any password or similar information through which a computer may be accessed without authorization, if—
(A) such trafficking affects interstate or foreign commerce; or
(B) such computer is used by or for the Government of the United States;
... shall be punished as provided in subsection (c) of this section.
Subsection C then sets a punishment for such a crime at a fine and/or imprisonment for up to 1 year. Repeat offenses (this applies to any past offense under any part of the CFAA, not just password trafficking) have a maximum sentence of 10 years.