In Texas most moving violations are class C misdemeanors. They do not carry a possible jail sentence (that doesn't mean you can't be jailed for failure to appear which is a separate and distinct offense). They usually have a maximum fine of $200.00 and not $500.00 although there are exceptions like being ticketed in a school zone, for school bus stop sign violations and for construction zones when workers are present.
The options of Defensive Driving are usually only if not in a school zone, if no workers are present in a work zone, and only if you do not have a commercial drivers license. If you take the defensive driving course you usually have to elect to do it before your first appearance date. You'd pay around 110 dollars and the court will dispose of your case after you take the course, pay around 25 dollars for the course and get a certified copy of your driving record showing that you didn't take a similar course for traffic ticket disposal in the prior year.
Deferred adjudication is like probation where you agree not to get a ticket (really a conviction) for speeding in the time allowed by the court, which can be 60, 90, 120 days or whatever the judge agrees. After you fulfill this obligation, you need to file a motion to the court and they will dismiss your case resulting in no points and no conviction.
If you decide to plead not guilty at your arraignment, they'll likely set a court date for a pre-trial hearing (but they might not). If you want to get discovery you can file a motion for discovery but you should file it prior to your pre-trial hearing date so you can get the court to order the prosecution to provide the discovery. If the court orders the prosecution to cough up the evidence against you, you probably don't have to pay anything for it. Or you can file Freedom of Information act requests to get it, but might have to pay for it in those cases.
You have a right to a jury trial for a traffic ticket in Texas if the fine is more than 20 dollars, and unless you waive that right, they have to provide it for you. You do not have to accept a bench trial (trial by judge) even though the prosecution will likely pressure you to waive that right.
If you're not provided the discovery that the court orders in a reasonable time period prior to your trial, the court might dismiss your case. It might not. Depends on the judge.
I've used this many times when I fight my traffic tickets. Your mileage may vary depending on the court.
If your trial is in a "court of record" - which means they record your trial and the judge is a real attorney, then it's harder to appeal if you are found guilty. Much harder and more expensive.
If the trial is held in a court that is NOT a court of record (the judge might not be an attorney) and you lose your trial, you can appeal it to a court of record and the trial is held "de novo" - or all over again, with a new judge in a county court of record. There will be a 'appeal bond' you'd need to file to appeal this kind of decision which will usually be two times the fine (whatever the jury fines you) and the court costs. So if the jury finds you guilty and assesses the fine of 30 dollars, and your court costs are 120 dollars, then your appeal bond will be 300 dollars. You'd make that out to the county and you have to pay it (perfect it) within 10 days from the date you are found guilty. - also not that if you also want the jury to assess the fine if they find you guilty then you NEED to ask the judge to tell them to do that PRIOR to the start of the trial.
If you are found not guilty you don't owe anything and can walk out and forget the matter.
If there is a hung jury you might be tried again, but that's not likely.