In the event a national monopoly forms such as a major railway or oil company, the U.S government (or any other government) can choose to take action such as breaking up that company into smaller companies. This would not be an option and that monopoly would have to comply.

However, let's imagine a scenario where there is a large international monopoly. Would the U.S government (or any other government) be allowed to force that international monopoly to break apart?

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    I am not sure what you mean by "allowed", or what sort of action you are envisioning. For instance, a government could go to war over such a thing, if they felt it was harming their national interests. This might or might not violate international law, but that wouldn't necessarily stop it. – Nate Eldredge Dec 22 '16 at 21:39

The US government could not break up a, say, UK registered company under anti-monopoly law (or anti-trust as it is called in the US).

However, it could impose legal sanctions such as fines and embargoes on its activities conducted in or affecting the USA. Those fines could be enforced in a UK Court.

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    Might rather than could in your last sentence, as long as the US courts decline to enforce foreign judgments against US citizens. – Tim Lymington Dec 23 '16 at 11:42

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