A rabbinical court in Israel on Thursday sentenced to five years in prison a man who for years has refused to give his wife a divorce. ... In Orthodox Judaism, a marriage cannot be undone unless the man consents to a get — the Hebrew word for divorce. Rabbinical courts — which in Israel function as family courts as part of the judiciary and have executive powers — cannot force a man to give his wife a get but they can impose harsh punishments on men the judges determine are unjustly withholding a get and turning their wives into what is known in Judaism as agunot, or “chained women.” ... “I will never give her a get. Even if she gives me back the apartment and the property, my tefillin and prayer shawl, she will not receive a get,” he told the court.
On the second article Sara Hill comments: "The Rabbinate only has jurisdiction over Jews. I suppose the Imams have jurisdiction over Moslems and the Christian authorities have jurisdiction over Christians but I don't know the exact details."
What are the legalities of this? In particular, are Jews (usually by birth) and Catholics (baptised as children) subject to religious courts even if they are not religious?