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I am a french student, during a six-month internship in France.
Thus, my question is restricted to this country only.

My contract gives me 5 days of paid leave. I have used only 3 until now.
I will have to leave the company without being able to use them.
The reason why is off-topic.

My question is:
Must the company pay me these days that I couldn't take?

I have done some research, and it seems that for regular employees, they must:

Indemnité compensatrice de congés payés:

Bénéficiaires

Salariés concernés

Tout salarié qui n'a pas pu bénéficier de la totalité du congé auquel il avait droit à la date de rupture de son contrat perçoit l'indemnité compensatrice de congés payés.

L'indemnité est due, même en cas rupture du contrat de travail pendant la période d'essai. Peu importe que la rupture soit du fait du salarié ou de l'employeur.

Salariés exclus

Toutefois, le salarié n'y a pas droit en cas de licenciement pour faute lourde, et uniquement pour les congés acquis durant la période de référence en cours.

But I don't know whether this can apply to an intern.

1

Unfortunately, these provisions do not apply to interns. Under French law, interns are not considered to be "regular" employees ("salariés") and almost all aspects regarding interns are governed by specific laws, if any.

The general rule is that interns do not have paid holiday per say, but rather off-work days, i.e. days during which the employer allows the intern not to come to work, aside from certain circumstances such as parental leave for which the interns have "proper" leave. These days off can be paid but not necessarily.

The law doesn't state anything specific regarding any paid leave you may have left at the end of the contract. You would have to read your contract (which I assume you have done already) and perhaps the "convention collective" which is the collective labor agreement which is specific to the company's field of work.

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