I wonder whether Electric personal delivery device (EPDD) is forbidden to use local street in residential neighborhoods (the lowest level of "highway" ever). There is an amendment to the Virginia Motor Vehicle code online (HB 2016 and SB 1207). Citing from HB 2016 full text:

§ 46.2-908.1:1. Electric personal delivery devices.

...

D. No electric personal delivery device shall be operated on a public highway in the Commonwealth, except to the extent necessary to cross an intersection or crosswalk.

Street crossing is explicitly allowed. But if I understand it correctly EPDDs are in now way allowed on any kind of public highways (=all kinds of streets/roads ever) which would not permit them on local streets either.

If I did not miss other statements in the amendment then the question really is what is meant by "public highway" in this context. Is there a chance an "intercity road" is meant excluding local streets from the denial?

The definition of 'Highway' in Virginia would indicate that these devices are not allowed on any roads, other than as necessary to cross them.

"Highway" means the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place open to the use of the public for purposes of vehicular travel in the Commonwealth, including the streets and alleys, and, for law-enforcement purposes, (i) the entire width between the boundary lines of all private roads or private streets that have been specifically designated "highways"by an ordinance adopted by the governing body of the county, city, or town in which such private roads or streets are located and (ii) the entire width between the boundary lines of every way or place used for purposes of vehicular travel on any property owned, leased, or controlled by the United States government and located in the Commonwealth.

However it looks like this legislation is designed for these devices to be used on sidewalks, so they should not need to be on roads that often.

From the Roanoke Free Press:

SB 1207 marks the first affirmative statewide approval of EPDDs operating on sidewalks, shared-use paths, and crosswalks in the United States.

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