Ditto HarveyBirdMan and I upvoted his answer, but let me take a part of what he said and beat it to death.
As the BirdMan says, facts are not copyrightable, only the words or pictures used to express those facts.
For example, suppose you write a news story describing a campaign speech given by Senator Jones. If another newspaper published that exact same story, word for word, without your permission, they would be guilty of copyright violation. But if another newspaper published a story about Senator Jones giving this speech, and they did not use the same words that you did, if, say, you said, "Senator Jones gave a brilliant and insightful speech about international trade" and they wrote "Senator Jones made some very intelligent remarks about trade with other countries", then they have not violated your copyright. Even if you were the first to publish it, you do not "own" the fact that Senator Jones gave this speech. You own the words you used to describe it.
So in this case, facts about the ballistic behavior of bullets are not copyrightable. The words you use to describe them are. If you select or arrange facts in an original and creative way, that selection or arrangement can be copyrightable. For example, if you put together a collection of your favorite scenes from Shakespeare's plays, your book would be copyrightable. Even though you don't own the individual scenes -- they're long since public domain -- you own the selection and arrangement. So, for example, a chart that you have made listing a variety of types of bullets and some set of ballistic characteristics is probably copyrightable. No one else can copy your chart exactly as is. But if someone took all the numbers off your chart and arranged them in a different way, and left some of your columns off and added a column or two of their own, then you probably could not win a copyright suit against them.
There was a classic case a few years ago where a telephone company sued another telephone company for copying their phone book. The court ruled that a phone book cannot be copyrighted. The key to their ruling was that the individual names and phone numbers are facts and cannot be copyrighted, and the idea of listing everyone in a certain geographical area in alphabetical order is so obvious that that can't be copyrighted either. The judge said that the standards for what is sufficiently creative to warrant copyright protection are low, but they are not non-existent.
I saw an upvote and realized that I never directly answered the question.
"How can factual intellectual property be protected?" The answer is, NOT with copyright. Copyright does not protect facts, only the expression of facts.
You can protect factual IP by keeping it secret and then using trade secret laws and non-disclosure agreements. But if you publish the information in a book yourself, I think you'd lose any claim to it being a trade secret.
Depending on the nature of the facts, you may be able to get a patent on the information. If you invent a new process or method, you may be able to patent it. But a table of information about existing products of other companies? I sincerely doubt you could patent that.
I'll gladly yield to an expert in IP law, but I don't think it's possible to protect the information in a table like your example. Think about the implications if you could. Suppose you published a chart listing, say, the weight of each bullet produced by a variety of ammo manufacturers. If you could copyright this, does that mean that the people who actually make the bullets aren't allowed to use the fact that they weigh such-and-such? Surely in their own manufacturing process they are aiming to make them a certain weight. Would the fact that you have published your book mean they are not allowed to weigh their own products any more? Presumably anyone with a sufficiently precise scale could determine the weight of a bullet. Should it be illegal for anyone besides you to weigh a bullet? Should scale manufacturers be required to somehow prevent people from using their scales to weigh bullets? Etc.