I'm a engineer with a diploma from another country, How would i proceed to become a patent lawyer in the USA?
Will I have to make a full undergrad course or there is a shorter way?
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There are two possible career paths in patent law.
One is to be a patent agent who is authorized to help people obtain patents through the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office administrative proceedings, but is not a lawyer and cannot litigate patent infringement in court or negotiate and draft licensing agreements. This requires some study to pass an exam offered by the PTO, but not a law degree. Usually, if you are an engineer, you also don't need a new scientific or technical degree either, although you might need a remedial course or two if your degree did not cover every subject that the PTO requires. I believe that there are PTO exam prep courses, although I've never really investigated it. A patent agent can also work for the PTO as a patent examiner.
A second is to become a patent attorney. This requires you to earn a U.S. law degree (three years of study to obtain a J.D., normally following an undergraduate degree in the U.S. (with no prerequisites), as the U.S. does not have an undergraduate law degree), then pass the bar exam in some U.S. state, and then to pass the PTO exam as well. You must also have the appropriate science/engineering background educationally or prove equivalent ability by exam. This gives you full authority to practice law in all areas including all aspects of patent law.
Unsurprisingly, patent lawyers are paid more than patent agents, but patent agents can still make a very decent living (in excess of $100,000 a year on average), and do much of the same work, without having to earn a credential that involves a lot of material that is extraneous to your goal.