A common clause is "this contract is made in accordance and to be construed by the laws of the state of California". What if something in the the contract applies to federal regulation and law but not state level law? For example laws pertaining to television requirements (such as audio levels) are federal, so would the clause that the contract is to use California law be invalidated since in a sense it should say "US law" (since the law comes from the federal level?)

  • Laws pertaining to television audio levels are unlikely to have a bearing on the interpretation of a contract.
    – phoog
    Sep 23, 2017 at 15:35

1 Answer 1


A choice of law clause stating that the laws of the state of California apply includes all laws, state and federal, that apply if one is located in the state of California, not just state law.

  • From the example found here "This Amendment shall be governed by, and construed in accordance with, the internal laws of the State of New York and all applicable federal laws of the United States of America." is the last part about federal laws redundant? Based on what you are saying... Mar 15, 2019 at 11:26
  • @justasking111 Lawyers are frequently, indeed, routinely, redundant.There is no prize for using fewer words. There are huge penalties for ambiguity or missing a subtle distinction. So, stylistically, redundancy is favored.
    – ohwilleke
    Mar 15, 2019 at 14:00

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