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Hypothetical example:

If two adults are having an online conversation about a romantic relationship and person A accuses person B out of nowhere and says "it seems like you had sex with a minor", and person B replies "impossible, she is 24 years old. I follow the law", could person B get investigated for this online conversation even though he is completely innocent? What consequences could follow from person A's false accusations?

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Investigated? Of course. I don't even think the police need "reasonable suspicion" to start an investigation, and person A has made the accusation.

Prosecuted? Perhaps, but unlikely. The prosecutor would need to be convinced, but I'm sure there are some stupid prosecutors.

Convicted? Probably not. There would need to be something that looked like evidence, and this is the principle line of defense against false accusations.

Other consequences? B could lose their job from this false accusation; employers don't have to follow criminal standards of evidence.

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