The Florida Fish and Wildlife
Conservation Commission has a page which explains who needs a license. Generally, a license is required for all saltwater and freshwater fishing, but there are various exemptions described on that page. There is no specific exemption for homelessness or low income per se, but it is possible that one of the other exemptions listed there might apply to your hypothetical individual, such as for instance the following:
- You are a Florida resident age 65 or older possessing proof of age and residency (a valid Florida Driver License or Florida ID Card meets this requirement) or possessing an optional Resident Senior Citizen Hunting and Fishing Certificate. Residents age 65 or older may obtain, at no cost, complimentary hunting and fishing certificates from some county tax collectors' offices.
- You have been accepted as a client for developmental services by the Agency for Persons with Disabilities. The agency must furnish proof to such clients. [Saltwater fishing only]
- You are a resident who is saltwater fishing from land or a structure fixed to land who has been determined eligible for the food stamp, temporary cash assistance, or Medicaid Program by the Department of Children and Families (DCF). Proof of identification and a benefit issuance or program identification card issued by DCF or the Agency for Health Care Administration must be on your person when fishing. A license is required when fishing from a vessel or when swimming or diving.
- You are a resident who is fishing with live or natural bait, using poles or lines that are not equipped with a fishing-line-retrieval mechanism, and you are fishing for noncommercial purposes in your home county. However, you must have a valid fishing license to fish by any method in a fish management area.
If none of the exemptions applies, your individual could get a shoreline fishing license, which is free of charge to Florida residents. This license would appear to cover his activities (fishing for a saltwater species from land or from a structure fixed to the land).