As far as criminal acts are concerned, sections 19 & 23 of the Security of Information Act are roughly equvalent to 18 USC § 1831. As for extraterritorial jurisdiction (18 USC § 1837), section 26 is roughly equivalent, though if I'm reading the two laws correctly, the Canadian one goes further in subsection (d) as any alleged offender would immediately be liable upon entry into Canada. I can find no criminal equivalent to 18 USC § 1832.
The civil situation is quite different. With one exception that employees must act in good faith, trade secrets are not distinct from confidential information. Additionally, trade secrets fall under the exclusive domain of the provinces, not the federal level. Except for Quebec, they have not legislated on the issue and have generally left it up to common law. According to Wikipedia, there are 5 types of actions within common law that can be used to protect trade secrets:
- breach of contract (expressed or implied provision),
- breach of confidence,
- breach of fiduciary duty,
- unjust enrichment and
- wrongful interference with the contractual relations of others.
That linked Wikipedia article provides a good starting point to further explore Canadian law on trade secrets.