Chapter II, Article 8, Section 1 (reprinted in full):
Every vehicle or combination of vehicles proceeding as a unit shall have a driver.
Chapter I, Article 4, Section 1 (reprinted in relevant part):
"Driver" means any person who drives a vehicle, including cycles, or guides draught, pack or saddle animals or herds or flocks on a road, or who is in actual physical control of the same; "Motor vehicle" means any self-propelled vehicle normally used for the transport of persons or goods upon a road, other than vehicles running on rails or connected to electric conductors.
Does this mean that countries subject to the treaty are not allowed to permit on-road testing of vehicles with highly automated driving functionality, which do not have human safety drivers (like what Waymo and many other companies already doing)?
Why might this treaty be seen as an issue in Japan but not the US?