Since the start of the war in Syria five years ago, more than 4.5 million Syrians have spilled over the border into neighboring Turkey, Lebanon, Iraq and Jordan. None of the latter three countries has ratified the 1951 Convention, meaning they technically have no obligation to recognize the displaced individuals as refugees. While Turkey has ratified the Convention, it maintains a "geographical limitation," which means it still only recognizes refugees from Europe.
The "geographical limitation" seems pretty loophole-ish to me. Can someone shed light on the details of how it's possible, e.g. what article in the Convention is invoked etc.? Are there other countries using this "geographical limitation" trick?