The Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) describes rights students have to their private records in the United States. Is there an equivalent for students in the United Kingdom?
The UK does not have an education-specific data-protection law.
And schools are also generally covered under the Data Protection Act 1988 (DPA) and the General Data Protection Regulation. Under DPA, the government has also issued regulations governing access to student records, and these also govern access to records. For some basic information on the regs, you can check out this article from the ICO.