What (if any) are the particular differences in U.S. courts between dismissal with prejudice, summary judgment, directed verdict, judgment as a matter of law (JMOL), and judgment notwithstanding the verdict (JNOV)?

My understanding is that:

  1. The effect of all these rulings is the same: The judge decides the outcome of the case, there is no further trial, and the only way to change the outcome is through an appeal.

  2. A directed verdict and JNOV only apply in jury trials, with the former only available before a jury returns a verdict and the latter only after.

  3. Otherwise: Are all of these rulings available in both civil and criminal cases?

  4. Can all be made sua sponte, or do any require that a party move the court?

  5. Can all (but JNOV) be made at any point a case is brought (prior to a final verdict)?

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