Say a car narrowly overtakes a cyclist who at that moment starts to signal that they want to turn by extending their arm outwards toward the car. The car left so little room that the cyclist inadvertently contacts/scrapes the car. Depending on angle and what the cyclist was wearing (gloves, rings, wristwatches) there might be damage to the cyclist or the car (or both).
Who is liable for the damage? Or is blame shared somehow? Does someone get a fine?
(one of the many things going through my head as a cyclist in dense adversarial city traffic. It never happened to me, but it could)