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Art. 3 (3) GDPR mentions that:

  1. This Regulation applies to the processing of personal data by a controller not established in the Union, but in a place where Member State law applies by virtue of public international law.

What are those places?

  • I think that might refer to interesting cases such as overseas territories of member states, Greenland which has a weird dual status of being both part of EU member Denmark and not being in the EU, and EEA countries like Norway. – amon Apr 26 at 12:28
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    Only cases I can think of are ships, aircraft, and spacecraft. – cpast Apr 26 at 13:37
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It means places that would fall under the EU laws and rules by treaties and things like that. For example, a consulate.

The GDPR also applies wherever EU Member State law applies by virtue of public international law. The Recitals provide a single example: a diplomatic mission or consular position. While that case is limited, the rule in public international law established by the Permanent Court of International Justice in Lotus is that a country has any extra-territorial jurisdiction it claims so long as there is not a public international law rule prohibiting the assumption of jurisdiction. Thus, the EU potentially could expand the GDPR scope in the future using this provision. https://www.wileyrein.com/newsroom-newsletters-item-May_2017_PIF-The_GDPRs_Reach-Material_and_Territorial_Scope_Under_Articles_2_and_3.html

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