Was any penal law corresponding to UDHR ever introduced in any country? So that UDHR could be enforced. I now that UDHR itself is not a penal code and as of now it is not enforced globally. But is there any country that has written or modified its penal law so that UDHR can be enforced (at least on its territory)?
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights isn't a penal code. It says very little about what should be a crime and only a little about what shouldn't be a crime or how those crimes should be punished.
It is cribbed heavily from the constitutional rights set forth in the U.S. Constitution and the positive rights declared by FDR in connection with his New Deal agenda.
It implies many positive entitlements and general principles that can't be achieved in the criminal justice system (Articles 1-2 and 13-30).
Articles 3-12 pertaining most directly to criminal procedure are very modest expectations that many countries meet, and even more countries have enacted as law, even if the reality doesn't always live up to the law in the statute books. This is evident from their very brevity.
Article 3. Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.
Article 4. No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.
Article 5. No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.
Article 6. Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.
Article 7. All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination.
Article 8. Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.
Article 9. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.
Article 10. Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.
Article 11. (1) Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence. (2) No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute a penal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.
Article 12. No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.