If a beer brewery has already trademarked the name barrelhouse, and I own a liquor distribution company, for wine and spirits, that I wanted to trademark as barrelhouse selections would this pass?
Beer and liquor are not entirely unconnected businesses -- both involve alcoholic beverages. On the other hand "barrelhouse" might be considered as a descriptive name. In general descriptive names get less protection. This is a grey area, and you would be wise to get legal advice, or pick a different name. Also, is the brewery in the same general geographic area / market area as you?
A key question would be: could a reasonable but somewhat careless customer or potential customer be confused into thinking that there is some affiliation or association between the two businesses? If the answer is yes, trademark infringement is quite likely to be occurring if both marks are used.
Trade mark laws are different in different countries. In some countries all trademarks must be registered. In others, including the US, simple use can confer protection with no registration.
Given that this is ijn the US according to the comment, this is still in a gray area. The other mark being registered makes it stronger, but being descriptive makes it weaker. The geographical distance will help, but if the market areas are the same or have significant overlap, so that some of the same people will be likely potential customers foe both businesses, that will hurt the new business's case, and make it more likely to be held an infringer.
I would still suggest consulting a trademark lawyer on the specific issue.