3

I'll admit that this question stems more from indirect experiences through popular culture and not real-life experience (fortunately), but I think there's still some real-life backing to it.

The "Miranda rights", as established in Miranda v. Arizona, must be read to a subject prior to interrogation so he or she is aware of the possible consequences of statements/confessions/etc. However, typical depictions of arrests - at least in popular media - show suspects being "read their rights" during their arrest, despite the fact that they are not undergoing, nor immediately about to undergo, any form of interrogation.

Why is the Miranda warning typically depicted as being given during an arrest, and not immediately before an interrogation? Is there a law that states that this is necessary?

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An interrogation isn't necessarily a sit-down-in-a-room thing.

Miranda v. Arizona clarifies what they mean by "interrogation" for the purposes of that opinion:

By custodial interrogation, we mean questioning initiated by law enforcement officers after a person has been taken into custody or otherwise deprived of his freedom of action in any significant way.

If any post-arrest questioning might happen, it is prudent to inform the defendant of their rights.


Miranda also reminds us that:

Any statement given freely and voluntarily without any compelling influences is, of course, admissible in evidence. The fundamental import of the privilege while an individual is in custody is not whether he is allowed to talk to the police without the benefit of warnings and counsel, but whether he can be interrogated. [...] Volunteered statements of any kind are not barred by the Fifth Amendment, and their admissibility is not affected by our holding today.

The police are not required to give a Miranda warning in order to make use of statements that the defendant volunteers while in custody. But, police generally can't predict when they might ask the defendant a question (or otherwise make the defendant feel compelled to answer).

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