You have it backwards. The duty is yours, not to book connections that are too tight. (Or the airline if they book the itinerary).
If you book a connection so tight that you have to be OJ Simpson (back when he was famous for running through airports), TSA is not obliged to help you pull that off. In fact, think about it. If I was a terrorist trying to sneak something through, I would intentionally book a tight connection so I could argue that TSA must not delay me with a thorough search. So no, that "pass me over, I'm late" argument can't possibly work.
You said it yourself, TSA delays are foreseeable. That means you have a duty to mitigate damages, i.e. Not create a situation where loss will be likely from stuff that happens normally.
"But TSA pulls me out of the line way too often" -- that argument may have merit on its own. However your case doesn't turn on the discrimination, it turns on the delay. Was the delay so extraordinary that the knock-on effects are TSA's fault? That doesn't work if your TSA delay is within the stated limits they normally claim on their website etc. That is, if their standard advice is "figure 2 hours for TSA" and you miss your plane because you failed to allocate 2 hours for TSA, then it doesn't matter if TSA usually takes 5 minutes. They don't owe you 5 minutes merely because it usually takes that.
Regardless of this, if the airline booked your itinerary for you on a single ticket, they are responsible for getting you to your destination, and the costs of TSA, immigration etc. delays are on them. So again you have no cause of action against TSA since the airline protects you from loss there. I suppose you could argue that your time has value, but you'd never successfully seat a jury who would consider airport delays extraordinary.
If you booked separate flight segments independently, then it's all on you to make that connection work. Booking a tight connection is a newbie mistake. When that fails, you must work it out with the onward airline, but prepare to pay! If you say "I am going to be homeless at airport B" because you can't pay, that's because you don't have enough money to be an effective traveler. Immigration at B should have refused you and sent you home at airline expense, for that reason. You are not allowed to visit a foreign country and then rely on social services (the dole) or seek employ, and they aim to enforce that by seeing that you have spare money back for emergencies.
The US does not have transit zones like Dubai or Schiphol. If the USA is a hop on a journey between two other countries, you must have a USA transit visa (or VWP) and you must be admitted to the USA through immigration. If this is news to you, that's just bad planning.
If this excessive examination and delay you speak of was an immigration matter and not TSA, then they have wide latitude to do as they please. Precious few rights apply at the immigraiton desk, and they don't owe you anything befause you are asking permission to visit the country. Admission of foreigners is not a right. Queen Elizabeth doesn't have a right to visit the US, for instance. (Canada, yes).