If a supreme court judge makes a sentence which violates the constitution, who is violating the law, those who follows the sentence, or those who follows the constitution? Can people in executive power positions be judged later, in other governments or under other judges, for violating the constitution, even if they were following the sentence of a supreme court judge? And how about the judge himself, can he be judged?
If a supreme court judge makes a sentence
It wouldn't be a Supreme Court Judge, it would be the Supreme Court Justices, they have to come to a majority decision.
a sentence which violates the constitution
The Constitution is interpreted by the Supreme Court so the conclusions they come to become "the law of the land" (I use that phrase loosely).
Can people in executive power positions be judged later, in other governments or under other judges, for violating the constitution
Other governments don't recognize the US Constitution as the law of the land, so no, someone won't be tried in another country under the US Consitution.
Could they be tried by another government for breaking that government's law? I couldn't find any history of a person at an executive-level position being tried in another country. (feel free to edit this part if you know of any examples).
Someone in that position could be tried in the International Criminal Court but that also depends on what you mean by "Executive".
how about the judge himself, can he be judged?
Just as if the President committed a crime, a Supreme Court Justice can be Impeached