In the South African constitution, the beginning of Chapter 1 reads:

  1. The Republic of South Africa is one, sovereign, democratic state founded on the following values:

    (a) Human dignity, the achievement of equality and the advancement of human rights and freedoms.

    (b) Non-racialism and non-sexism.

    (c) Supremacy of the constitution and the rule of law.

    (d) Universal adult suffrage, a national common voters roll, regular elections and a multi-party system of democratic government, to ensure accountability, responsiveness and openness.

What is the understood meaning of "equality" in the bold phrase? Has this ever been tested in court?

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