In computer security, there is a process called pentest. People who do this are usually hired by a company to simulate cyberattack and find vulnerabilities which hackers could abuse. After they do this, they send a report to the company, and the company will be able to fix the vulnerabilities.

I wonder, are there jobs for something similar except the vulnerabilities are to be found in the constitution, laws, etc.? Is there a term for it?

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    You're comparing apples and oranges; your metaphor is not logical. – BlueDogRanch Jan 17 at 19:38
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    People do break laws to test the validity of those laws including civil disobedience. – George White Jan 17 at 23:41

are there jobs for something similar except the vulnerabilities are to be found in the constitution, laws, etc.?

Yes, but they (1) take forms that are more subtle than straight-forward labels such as pentesting, and (2) usually are intended for taking advantage of detected loopholes rather than reporting them for a fix.

Fiscal engineering is a good example of vulnerability search. Short of incurring tax fraud, the task of financial engineering entails advanced knowledge of tax law so as to take advantage of the loopholes therein and thus minimize the amount that has to be paid to the tax authority.

Unlike computer pentesting, though, legislation very often requires or at least makes room for discretion on the part of the agent (whether it is a prosecutor, a judge, an analyst, and so forth) provided that the agent's decision is consistent with the legislative intent behind the statute(s) at issue. Accordingly, the matter of statutory loopholes is not as definite as the question of whether a computer system or program has bugs in it.

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The job of a judge is to decide the case before them which requires them to decide what the facts are and apply the law to the facts. In the vast majority of cases, the outcome hinges on deciding what the facts because the law is relatively clear. Occasionally a case comes along which demonstrate gaps or inconsistencies in the law - the judge then gets to decide what the law is.

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US laws are routinely 'put to the test' by attorneys in the Supreme Court. Arguments are made as to why laws should be remedied. In Pen-testing parlance: At this stage the "data" has been collected and the remediation of vulnerability is requested.

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