In Michigan, and perhaps in other states too, an appellate court will uphold the facts found by an administrative agency if the facts are supported by competent, material, and substantial evidence. What is the difference between competent evidence, material evidence, and substantial evidence?


Competent evidence is admissible under the relevant rules of evidence for the tribunal.

Material evidence bears directly on a point that is in contention before the tribunal.

Substantial evidence is compelling in deciding the point.

  • Thank you. Can you add some authority? – Daniel Patru Mar 7 '20 at 22:21

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