This is a matter of a balancing of rights and responsibilities.
When a person acts in a negligent mannor, then they can be held responsible for their actions.
Who (and how) does one determin if a person has acted in a negligent mannor?
- mostly through an impartial Judge implementing civil and criminal laws
So if a citizen (in their wisdom and against the advice of their government) goes skiing in a virus infected area and causes other citizens to be infected, the Government will, after cleaning up the mess that the beloved citizen caused, send a bill.
Should the citizen (in their wisdom) deside that the bill is not justified and refuses to pay, the matter will land in a court of law.
There the Judge (in their wisdom), will deside who is right and who is wrong.
This due process ('a citizen's fair treatment within the rules of a government's legal system'), based on the Jurisdiction, may be implemented in different ways.
The Czech government declared a 30-day state of emergency over coronavirus across the country as of 14:00 today, citing a threat to the health of population, PM Andrej Babis (ANO) said after the cabinet’s extraordinary meeting today.
The state of emergency is a crisis measure the state adopts in serious situations that considerably endanger people’s lives, health or property, or the country’s internal order and security
It has also issued additional restrictions on social gatherings and other types of public activity.
The State has also banned foreigners from 13 high-risk countries from entering the country, including neighbouring Germany and Austria, while Czechs are banned from visiting these countries, except for rescuers and drivers of delivery services.
People will be allowed to cross the Czech borders with Germany and Austria only at selected crossings as of Friday midnight, with border checks being reintroduced, Interior Minister Jan Hamacek (Social Democrats, CSSD) said.
The government has also stopped the issuance of Czech visas and acceptance of visa applications. No permits for Czech stay over 90 days will be issued, he said.
Prague, March 12 (CTK) – All the passenger bus, train and ship transport to all neighbouring countries will be banned and air traffic will be reduced as of Saturday, the Czech Transport Ministry said after a government meeting today.
It will only be possible to travel abroad by car.
What should I do if I am returning from a high-risk area?
According to the Ministry of Health, anyone returning from Italy to the Czech Republic must stay in home quarantine for two weeks, with a 3-million CZK fine for violating the regulation.
Upon return contact your healthcare provider immediately — whether you are showing symptoms or not — to let them know. Your healthcare professional will work with health officials to determine if you need to be tested for COVID-19.
Reinforcing health measures at the Schengen Borders
Under the Schengen Border Code, all decisions to refuse or accept entry to the territory of a Member State must be subject to an individual assessment undertaken by the competent authorities. It is the responsibility of the Member States to refuse entry on public health grounds to individual third country nationals.
Based on Czech and EU laws, no Czech judge should have any objections about these measures.
From the comments:
This requires some fairly specific government rulings to reduce travelling. A priori citizens are free to travel pretty much anywhere. If for example I travel within Germany to the most affected county and then back to a major metro area, one could argue that I'm not very responsible but unless either me or the county are officially quarantined, I'm not liable for anything.
In this case home quarantine for two weeks is mandatory and can be fined with € 115240,50.
Any futher malicious activities (as done by the Japanese man, going out to deliberately ‘spread the virus’) by a person could lead to further civil and criminal charges (including liability for any cost or damages).
Article 2 [Personal freedoms]
(1) Every person shall have the right to free development of his personality insofar as he does not violate the rights of others or offend against the constitutional order or the moral law.
(2) Every person shall have the right to life and physical integrity. Freedom of the person shall be inviolable. These rights may be interfered with only pursuant to a law.