If I want to sue the government for damages, such as pollution or some other major case, where do I sue it? Can I take the federal government to small claims court? Also, assuming I get a money judgment, how I proceed with garnishment? Is the government judgement proof? If the federal government fails to comply with a court order what is my remedy? Can I place a lien on the white house or congress building?
The United States government has sovereign immunity, meaning that you cannot sue it unless it consents to being sued. The US has consented to suit for certain things, but not in state courts. Immunity has been waived for some tort cases by the Federal Tort Claims Act, and all lawsuits under this act happen in the federal district court for the appropriate judicial district. Most other money claims happen in the Court of Federal Claims, a specialized court for money claims against the federal government. For contract disputes under $10,000, the Court of Federal Claims shares jurisdiction with the federal district courts.
Can I take the federal government to small claims court?
Small claims court is a state court, so no. You cannot sue the federal government in anything but a federal court.
Also, assuming I get a money judgment, how I proceed with garnishment?
You don't. Garnishment is never the first step after winning money in a court case; the first step is asking the defendant to give you the money. If the US was the defendant, that's also where it will end. Federal law directs the Treasury to pay federal court judgments against it and appropriates money to that end. If the case was heard in a state or foreign court, it's up to the Attorney General whether or not the US will pay (because the US isn't bound by the orders of a state or foreign court).
Is the government judgement proof?
No, and there are automatic appropriations to pay valid judgments against the United States.
If the federal government fails to comply with a court order what is my remedy?
If a court rules that the federal government owes you money and the government refuses to pay, you're entitled to interest. The court could potentially hold the government in contempt, but it can't cut you a check from federal funds.
Can I place a lien on the white house or congress building?
No. There is no situation where you can do that.