Are US employers allowed to unilaterally cut the pay for an employee, specific team or all employees through a one-off measure? Are forced contributions to charity, pay reductions during an economic crisis, fines for not meeting performance goals, and others legally above board?
From my limited understanding of US labor law, an employer is free to reduce pay going forward for any reason that isn't covered by specific anti-discrimination laws. And as a company-wide measure applied to future pay this also doesn't seem like it could be construed as an illegal deduction. But I'm not finding a straight answer.
This question was inspired by this question about an employer reducing pay to buy the CEO's book and this off-site article about an employer fining people for being late.
Can an employer apply what are effectively one-off pay cuts through enforced contributions, fines or other measures?