Is a patient required to pay for non-emergency services they did not request from a medical provider?
For example, a radiology clinic takes an x-ray and then sends it to a 3rd party radiologist for interpretation without the patient having requested any analysis of the x-ray nor having participated in the selection of the third party who would perform the analysis.
I view this as the medical equivalent of cleaning someone's windshield at a red light without them asking for it and then demanding money for the windshield washing service.
If that's not so, why is the medical industry treated differently than other services such as painters; if I asked someone to paint my house, and then they also decided to paint my shed without me asking, no one would expect that I be obligated to pay the painter for painting my shed.
I understand that in emergency medical situations, it may be implied that the patient cannot consent or decline services, so it is by default considered to be agreed to. This question is about non-emergency services only.