It's difficult to tell: it's possible that you could be hired, or that you can't be hired. The easy part, the third question, is that this is not a ban based on ethnicity or citizenship, it is based no residence, so it you are not in Iran, you're not a target of the ban.
The sanctions prohibit the importation of certain services of Iranian origin (e.g. employment), and also §560.419 says that
The prohibitions in §560.201 make it unlawful to hire an Iranian
national ordinarily resident in Iran to come to the United States
solely or for the principal purpose of engaging in employment on
behalf of an entity in Iran or as the employee of a U.S. person,
unless authorized pursuant to § 560.505. See also § 560.418 with
respect to the release of technology and software.
But you are not coming to the US (or The Netherlands). Nevertheless, HR of the employing firm may have misinterpreted the regulation.
There is a good chance that you would not be subject to the importation of services regulation, §560.201:
Except as otherwise authorized pursuant to this part, and
notwithstanding any contract entered into or any license or permit
granted prior to May 7, 1995, the importation into the United States
of any goods or services of Iranian origin or owned or controlled by
the Government of Iran, other than information and informational
materials within the meaning of section 203(b)(3) of the International
Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1702(b)(3)), is prohibited.
First, is there a reasonable interpretation of the circumstances where your services are imported into the US? Second, is the hiring company a subsidiary of a US firm and is controlled by the US firm (if not, the US sanctions do not apply to a foreign employer). Under the Iran Threat Reduction and Syrian Human Rights Act §218, that would be
(1) one that is more than 50% owned by the U.S. parent; (2) one in
which the parent firm holds a majority on the Board of Directors of
the subsidiary; or (3) one in which the parent firm directs the
operations of the subsidiary.
The nature of the services imported also matters: information services can be imported, likewise sports-related services. Importation of oil and gas related services is prohibited. So all told, it's difficult to say what is allowed in this circumstance.