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If a murder were committed in Antarctica and it was unclear who did it, what country/agency would investigate? And, if the guilty party were identified, who (if anyone) would have the authority to arrest them?

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Various countries have jurisdiction in Antarctica, see https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antarctic_Treaty_System#Legal_system.

The geographic limits of each country's jurisdiction are well defined. The USA has jurisdiction if no one else does.

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    Question - does your answer change if the murder weapon was an icicle? – jqning Nov 30 '15 at 3:59
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    @jqning no, but if wielded by a penguin ... – Dale M Nov 30 '15 at 4:29
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    The USA has jurisdiction if no one else does. WOO! USA! USA! USA! ...Sorry. Instinct. – Parthian Shot Nov 30 '15 at 8:18
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    "The geographic limits of each country's jurisdiction are well defined" - but in many cases, overlap. In practise, the murder would probably be investigated by the country running the relevant base. (Which could be tricky if the murder happened half-way between Rothera [UK] and San Martin [Argentina]) – Martin Bonner supports Monica Feb 10 '17 at 16:44
  • All of which begs the question of whether Antarctica - and specifically the area where the crime was committed - have any law enforcement officers. GIven that almost everyone there seems to be a scientist, I'm guessing police are few and far between or absent entirely. I suppose people that aren't police officers would be motivated to solve the crime and detain the miscreant if he/she is found, pending evacuation to the relevant country's judicial system. – Henry Oct 24 '18 at 3:56
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In the most cases, the country of the citizenship of the victim would do the investigation. If the crime was committed on an Antarctic base running within a specific jurisdiction, such jurisdiction would be also given and investigation would be probably done by that country as well.

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