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In a jury trial for a criminal charge, SCOTUS recently ruled that a guilty verdict must be unanimous.

In (almost) every state a verdict to acquit a criminal defendant must also be unanimous.

If a jury cannot reach a unanimous verdict (a.k.a. a hung jury) then the judge must declare a mistrial and the prosecutor can demand a new trial of the same defendant on the same charge.

Are there any legal constraints on the number of times that a defendant can be retried following mistrials due to hung juries? Or is the only practical constraint the willingness of the prosecutor to expend government resources (and perhaps political capital) pursuing a conviction?

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Are there any legal constraints on the number of times that a defendant can be retried following mistrials due to hung juries?

No. A fairly recent case in Louisiana, for example, involved someone who had been tried perhaps half a dozen times resulting in a mix of hung juries and reversals of convictions on appeal.

Or is the only practical constraint the willingness of the prosecutor to expend government resources (and perhaps political capital) pursuing a conviction?

Yes. This is the only practical limitation.

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