Is there ever a scenario where a Judge could respond with the following?
Historically, yes (at least in England, circa 9th-12th century). Judges were directly appointed by the Monarch and so, woe betide you if what you said didn't "please" the court at the time. The sorts of judges back then would usually have been people close to or supportive of the Monarch and would enjoy a sort of rarefied air sitting in court. It would have been quite clear to everyone that you would want to treat the judge with as much respect as possible in order to enhance your chances of winning the case.
The lawyers were very much aware of the judge's superior status and were incredibly polite to them, almost obsequious. It's no different to you being on your best behaviour if you met the Queen. That said, it is primarily a generic formality these days.
In any event, yes there are still situations where the judge will say "No" to such a statement. I cannot imagine they would expressly say "No, it does not please the court" but generally anything preposterous or silly proposed by the lawyer would get that response. Something that's not in the interests of justice would also get that response.
If it pleases the court, I would like to ask that my client be released from the dock to sit next to me at the bar for the duration of trial, notwithstanding that she is here on a charge of murder
If that client is considered dangerous, the judge isn't about to say "Why yes, that's fine" as that person is in the dock (typically a secured glass box) for a reason.