After the passage of Civil Rights Act what's the formal process to bring charges against schools, government institutions, or businesses that engage in segregation or other variations of "seperate but equal" policies. Say we were looking at a non-compliant public school during the transition from Jim Crow but under up to date laws, what is the case brought against them and the legal remedy that is pursued.

I chose schools as they are also somewhat government institutions, though if there is a significant difference in treatment on public/private then I'd also be interested in hearing how they differ, say how segregation policies would be punished if a city government or mayors office engaged in it vs private restaurant.


For a government agency at the state or local level, the aggrieved party would bring an action under 42 U.S.C. 1983, which allows for relief from anyone who deprives another person "of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured by the Constitution and laws."

If the offending party is a private entity, you would most likely bring an action under 42 U.S.C. 1981, which provides that all people have the right to do business on the same terms as those afforded to white people.

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