There is racism and there is institutionsed racism. I've heard and read of both terms being used. The former most often in speech; and the latter more in in writing.
According to a paper in the Kentucky Law Journal by William Wiecek:
I am collaborating with a sociologist, Dr. Judy Hamilton, on a study that is meant to introduce the subject to lawyers and judges. We hope that the marriage of her work as a sociologist and my work as a constitutional lawyer will sensitise the legal community to the existence and impact of a social reality that most lawyers ignore. We thought that a conference that brought persons from multiple fields outside the law could increase awareness of structural racism amongst lawyers ...
Obviously there is the earlier work in during the civil rights movement that uncovered a whole host of problems to do with 'literacy' tests in the US with regards to voting. And also the accusation that mass incarceration is the New Jim Crow.
Q. What is the legal understanding of the either structural/institutional racism?
Jurisdiction: Either Britain or the USA.