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Are the Authorities in Austria, allowed to ask for additional documents that they did not previously specify, when one applies for a visa?

For example, when applying for the post-Brexit EUV 50 card (i.e. "The residency card that all British citizens in Austria, who were resident in Austria prior to 31.12.2020, must apply for in 2021" since they are non-EU citizens), if the required filings (erforderliche Unterlagen) are a valid passport, timestamped photo, correctly filled-out form, and a valid Anmeldebescheinigung and you provide all of these, are they legally allowed to then demand something not mentioned, like your bank details from 5 years ago?

I would like to read whatever laws pertain to this.

At the bottom of their website it states:

Es kann sein, dass Sie weitere Dokumente vorlegen müssen.

The Google translation of this phrase is:

You may be required to provide additional documents.

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In general, obtaining a Visa is a thing that is done according to the discretion of the state offering it. As a result, it is entirely up to the Austrian regulations. To establish the necessary information, sometimes additional information is required then the basic ones. Austrias Visa page lists:

Nachweis über ausreichende Mittel zur Bestreitung des Lebensunterhalts für die Dauer des geplanten Aufenthalts und die Rückreise in den Herkunfts- oder Wohnsitzstaat

Sonstige von der jeweiligen Behörde geforderten Nachweise (Hotelreservierungen, Einladungsschreiben, Buchungsbelege, Rückflugticket, Nachweis einer aufrechten Beschäftigung, usw.) – da diese den örtlichen Standards angepasst und mit den anderen Schengenvertretungen koordiniert sind, können die Nachweise lokal differieren

The first is "proof that you are financially not dependant on Austria for the time you want to be there" and "Any other documentation required by the office". That means, yes, they can ask for any documents that are reasonable to establish that you can pay for your travel to Austria and intend to return home after your visit. They do so according to Article 14 of the Visa-ordonance:

Article 14 Supporting documents

  1. When applying for a uniform visa, the applicant shall present: (a) documents indicating the purpose of the journey;

(b) documents in relation to accommodation, or proof of sufficient means to cover his accommodation;

(c) documents indicating that the applicant possesses sufficient means of subsistence both for the duration of the intended stay and for the return to his country of origin or residence, or for the transit to a third country into which he is certain to be admitted, or that he is in a position to acquire such means lawfully, in accordance with Article 5(1)(c) and (3) of the Schengen Borders Code;

(d) information enabling an assessment of the applicant’s intention to leave the territory of the Member States before the expiry of the visa applied for.

Any other information is under 14.1.d, and that can take the shape of bank statements.

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Are the Authorities in Austria, allowed to ask for additional documents that they did not previously specify, when one applies for a visa?

Only when the additional documents are relevant to the application being made.

For example, when applying for the post-Brexit EUV 50 card (i.e. "The residency card that all British citizens in Austria, who were resident in Austria prior to 31.12.2020, must apply for in 2021" since they are non-EU citizens), if the required filings (erforderliche Unterlagen) are a valid passport, timestamped photo, correctly filled-out form, and a valid Anmeldebescheinigung and you provide all of these, are they legally allowed to then demand something not mentioned, like your bank details from 5 years ago?

No, since you supplied the Anmeldebescheinigung which proved the date you became a resident.

Had you 'forgotten' to register (as you, as an EU Citizen, were required to do after 3 months), then the bank details could serve as an alternative proof that you were working in Austria 5 years ago. Then the answer would be 'Yes'.

There were also cases where the person registered much later than after the date they actually took up residence.

If they registered in 2020, then they would only be eligible for the temporary card (residence less than 5 years).

If they actually arrived in 2014, they would then be eligible for the permament card if acceptible proof is supplied.

The bank details, showing employment income, (or payments details of contributions into the pension system) could then be demanded to supply the proof needed to issue a permament card. Otherwise only a temporary card would be issued, should you refuse (or cannot) supply the needed documents.

As applicant you are required to supply any needed documents as long as it is relevant to the application.

In Germany, this is called Verhältnismäßigkeitsprinzip (Deutschland) (principle of proportionality), that also exists in Austria and Switzerland.

Since this principle essentially applies everywhere, there is no need to repeat it explicitly in individual laws where it is used.

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