If a flavor ingredient (e.g. vanillin) was produced via a natural fermentation process, starting from a natural substrate (e.g. sugar) I know that it can be labelled as "natural" (at least in the US and EU).
Now my question is, suppose one were to use a recombinant organism for this fermentation, would the product vanillin be regarded as natural?
Alternatively, suppose only an enzymatic treatment of the substrate sugar was involved, however the enzyme itself was produced by a recombinant organism would this impact the natural status of the product vanillin?
A related question: If a product is made using a GM enzyme does that automatically make the product a GMO? (note the substrate is NOT a GMO in this case. Only the enzyme is.)