Alice creates a non-fungible token (NFT) of a digital file that they do not own copyright of. She adds the token to the ethereum blockchain, and creates a transaction that transfers it to a wallet controlled by Bob. Bob does not download the blockchain, but keeps his keys safe. Charlie knows nothing about this exchange, but downloads the blockchain and mines the block that represents the transaction. Dawn also has the blockchain, and downloads the newly mined block and adds it to her copy (as does everyone else in the world with a copy of the blockchain).
It seems to me that the NFT is a derivative work of the original file, and therefore if Alice was located in the US she would be breaching copyright in creating the NFT, and in distributing it by adding it to the blockchain. Bob has never seen the NFT and has never created a copy of it, but has the theoretical ability to create transactions involving it that would be recognised as valid by others. Charlie has created a copy of the NFT (by downloading the blockchain) and distributed a derivative (by publishing the mined block) but has no knowledge of any infringing activity. Dawn has created a copy of the NFT.
If Alice was in the US, and therefore breaching copyright law in creating the NFT, are Bob, Charlie and/or Dawn either committing any crimes, or exposing themselves to potential civil charges?
If Alice was in a jurisdiction which did not recognise the copyright on the original work (perhaps Iran?) does this change the situation? What about if Charlie is?