My question is also about this legal language structure in general: "This law applies to a person if they X and Y."
I read this as a strict and, that the law applies only if the person satisfied both criteria. Is that the most common interpretation? Clearly it is a correct natural language interpretation, but is still somewhat ambiguous. E.g. "if the person is armed and in possession of an illegal substance then they get 10 years" means that the person must be both armed and in possession of an illegal substance to have that penalty apply. Of course, in this last example, there might be a separate specific distinct penalty that is stated for when the person is only in possession of the illegal substance (but not armed - without stated this about being unarmed specifically though). I can also imagine that there might be different standards that apply in criminal vs other types of law too. What are those various standards, if any?
The specific law I am interested in is Texas Medicaid law and specifically the Medicaid Estate Recovery Program. The relevant statutes are in RULE §373.103:
(a) A Medicaid Estate Recovery claim may be filed against the estate of a deceased Medicaid recipient for covered Medicaid services if the recipient:
(1) Was age 55 years or older at the time the services were received; AND
(2) Initially applied for covered Medicaid long-term care services on or after March 1, 2005, the effective date of these rules.
My question is about the emphasized AND in there (my added bold and capitalization). Would the most common interpretation be that the recipient should satisfy both criteria in order for the law to apply to them?
Obviously, this is my first post here, so maybe asking about a specific question in a way that sounds like seeking legal advice isn't allowed. I am not asking for legal advice! I can delete the specific law though and make the question just the first part, about the general structure. I am more curious about the specific legal language structure and where else it might exist and how it has been interpreted.
I was just reading this: https://adamsdrafting.com/downloads/Ambiguity-And-Or.pdf and realized that in almost every example included I had my own interpretations that seemed obviously correct, while still seeing how it can actually be ambiguous.