Rolling Stone has a short non-technical article on a dozen famous cases. This page is a massive database on music copyright infringement cases going back to 1844, along with analysis of the cases. That analysis may well suffice for your interests: here is an except from a recent case:
In fact, there is no melodic material in the section in question in
the plaintiff’s work. The harmonic progression of the arpeggiated
chords of both songs is utterly commonplace and not copyrightable
expression. Neither are “structure, tempo, instrumentation” when, as
here, these elements in both works contain no protectable authorship
individually or combined. The plaintiff’s references to “iconic
notes” and “feel” are meaningless.
What excited the plaintiff was merely the fact that a portion of the
defendant’s song sounds like his. This similarity, however, doesn’t
support a claim of infringement of a musical work when, as here, the
musical elements of the portions of the songs in issue underlying the
recorded sounds of both works contain little or no protectable
Apart from providing the appellate court rulings, this also includes original complaints and petitions, certain trial court rulings, and amicus briefs which are the "technical" core of the court's finding of fact.
However, you will need to read a varied sample of these cases and not just pick one at random. This will at least provide the raw material basis for discovering how these decisions are made.