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Article VI of the Outer Space Treaty states

States Parties to the Treaty shall bear international responsibility for national activities in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, whether such activities are carried on by governmental agencies or by non-governmental entities, and for assuring that national activities are carried out in conformity with the provisions set forth in the present Treaty. The activities of non-governmental entities in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, shall require authorization and continuing supervision by the appropriate State Party to the Treaty. When activities are carried on in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, by an international organization, responsibility for compliance with this Treaty shall be borne both by the international organization and by the States Parties to the Treaty participating in such organization.

Article VII of the Outer Space Treaty states

Each State Party to the Treaty that launches or procures the launching of an object into outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies, and each State Party from whose territory or facility an object is launched, is internationally liable for damage to another State Party to the Treaty or to its natural or juridical persons by such object or its component parts on the Earth, in the air or in outer space, including the moon and other celestial bodies.

Has this article ever been enforced? If so, how?

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No

Or at least, not as of 8 December 2020.

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  • What about the Crash of Kosmos 954? Canada received 3 Million (half of the 6 million it asked for) from USSR following the crash of the shuttle. Was this due to the OST? Can Canada invoke OST and demand full payment? i couldn't find any answer Jul 26 at 14:07
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    @AdilMohammed: The article states that "[t]o date, there have been no cases before an international tribunal on international space law." Canada's claims didn't go before an international tribunal; effectively, the USSR and Canada "settled out of court". Jul 26 at 14:30
  • @AdilMohammed I think you posted the wrong link :)
    – Philipp
    Jul 27 at 8:20
  • :( Cant edit but heres the wiki link for future viewers, turns out there was also another Kosmos crash Unlucky name I suppose Jul 27 at 11:26
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    @AdilMohammed unlucky name? Kosmos has been the name of 2550 satellites. 2/2550 is better than 2/135 - the crash rate for space shuttles.
    – Dale M
    Jul 27 at 12:20

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