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I have a question about whether I should use “under” or “stipulated by” in the sentence below.

  1. Responsible for navigation, cargo handling, fire and life-saving equipment, and other duties related to safe operation of ships under international conventions.
  2. Responsible for navigation, cargo handling, fire and life-saving equipment, and other duties related to safe operation of ships stipulated by international conventions.

Because duties of mariners are mandatary and written into international conventions, I am wondering whether the use of these two words may cause different meanings and understanding to readers. Which word is best to reflect the meaning of "written into"?

In addition, can I use “stipulated under” to replace stipulated by? Is it correct?

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To me, they are synonymous but legislation often uses "in accordance with" as well.

By way of an example: a word search of that phrase in the Merchant Shipping and Maritime Security Act 1997 returns 91 hits, whereas "under an order" and "under regulations" have just three each, and "stipulated" does not appear at all.

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  • I agree under U.S. law. The word "under" would be preferred to "stipulated" as a matter of customary usage, but I can't think of any circumstance in which they have different meanings.
    – ohwilleke
    Aug 5 at 23:22

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