Suppose that there is an English language training provider P based in China. P would like to create in-house training material for P's students. The established practice of both Chinese College Entrance Examination (Gaokao) as well as IELTS is to source original content from say, The New York Times, Scientific American, and similar publications. and ask questions based on these contents. Sometimes there will be minor modifications to the content to better suit the English ability of the students.
I have searched online but I couldn't find a definitive answer here. If P were to use contents from, say The New York Times and make exercise questions based off that, does P have an obligation to ask for permission from the New York Times Company? Does anybody know how either the Gaokao committee, or IELTS go about these kind of things?
Also, if the answer is yes, would there be a way avoid the associated fees? Such a program would be likely to involve thousands of selections, and so even small per-item fees might not be economically workable.