This is a question that was raised after watching several TV series on streaming services. It revolves around the United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID) and activity of USAMRIID on US Soil and whether legally they can be deployed or can act within the United States in the event of a major viral outbreak or other type of situation where they and their scientists are the 'front lines' of a major Biosafety Level 3/4 outbreak domestically.
Origin of the Question
A 1995 movie called "Outbreak" details a fictional viral outbreak of an infinitely lethal pathogen. This pathogen essentially infects an entire town and USAMRIID and US Military are deployed to cordon off the town and act alongside CDC to help identify and then attempt to create an antigen for this fictional pathogen. However, there was a US Army military cordon used in the movie to isolate the affected town.
Two seasons of a series called "The Hot Zone" exist (based on actual real life events, i.e. Ebola Reston and Amerithrax responses and investigations), the first one detailing the Ebola Reston situation where there was an Ebola outbreak in Reston at an animal quarantine place holding monkeys. USAMRIID deployed during that first season to sterilize the facility, neutralize the monkeys, and get samples of Ebola Reston to USAMRIID for study. They operated as a military operation to get in, sterilize the threats, and get out without being seen, however as everyone involved was USAMRIID, they were technically military, so it stands to reason they are not permitted to deploy domestically.
We know that the Posse Comitatus Act (18 U.S.C. § 1385) limits the ability for the federal government to deploy US military personnel to enforce domestic laws and policies within the US. However, while USAMRIID is a US Military operation out of Fort Detrick, there still seems to be a lot of movies showing USAMRIID deploying in response to domestic biosafety level 3 and level 4 situations, adn then in turn acting in regards to those situations.
I know these movies are dramatizations, and not based in actual US legal cases at times, however I know that USAMRIID along with CDC personnel were involved in eradicating the Ebola Reston 'outbreak' before it spread beyond the quarantine facility.
Does USAMRIID operate outside the Posse Comitatus Act, in that they can coordinate and act on US soil in response to biological threat situations, or are they bound by Posse Comitatus and are not allowed to act to enforce biosafety in the event of outbreaks of BL4 agents like ebola or other filoviruses?
This question is looking for answers based in law and precedent related to Posse Comitatus and whether it affects USAMRIID specific activities states-side in response to biosafety situations. Precedents to support statements are desired in this case.