The official website of the french administration gives details under which conditions a landlord can end a lease in France.
As a general rule, the landlord cannot end a lease unless meeting certain conditions. The landlord has to send a letter to all of the tenant (all of them if multiple) named on the lease, and the spouse of the tenant even if not named on the lease. The letter has to be sent at least 6 month before the end of the lease if the residence isn't furnished, or 3 months if the residence is furnished. The letter must contain the reason for the ending of the lease.
There are 3 causes the landlord may use to end the lease:
The landlord plans to make the residence the primary residence of them, their spouse / partner (of at least 1 year) / PACS partner, or an ascendant or descendant of the landlord or their spouse.
The landlord plans to sell the residence. In this case, the tenant has the priority to buy the residence if they wish. If the tenant take the offer, the landlord is obliged to accept the offer. The landlord can also sell the residence with the lease, in which case the lease is transfered to the buyer.
Under legitimate and serious cause, including but not limited to not paying rent / regularly paying the rent late, causing trouble to the neighborhood, subleasing the residence... If the tenant contests the cause, the landlord will have to justify to a judge the reason the cause of termination. In this case, the landlord can have ground to end the lease before its end date.
Otherwise, the landlord cannot end the lease, and the lease is automatically renewed at the end date without the need of explicit communication.
A tenant can be protected if they fall under certain conditions. I don't find anything protecting people with a child, but if the tenant
- is older than 65yo / taking care of someone older than 65yo
- and the tenant earns an income lower than a certain limit a given year
Then the tenant can be protected from these causes, unless the landlord
- is also older than 65
- or earns an income lower than the same limit as the tenant
- or offers to help relocate the tenant to another residence close to the first residence which also accomodates to the need of the tenant.
Note that, if the ex-tenant found that the cause given by the landlord was fraudulent (for example saying they'll use it as a primary residence but lease it to another tenant), then the tenant can bring the case to court and get indemnized as indicated here.