The examples deal with the US, but I'd also be curious about similar laws relating to other countries.
Imagine there is an underground cave or tunnel whose entrance is in Sonora, Mexico, but which extends underground to pass under the territory of Arizona, United States. Now imagine that a woman enters the cave or tunnel and knowingly walks into the part that is under Arizona.
- Assuming she is not a US citizen, LPR or visa holder, has she illegally entered the country?
- If she commits a crime while in that area, would a court in Arizona have jurisdiction to try her for it? What about a court in Sonora?
- If she gives birth to a child while in that area, would the child be a US citizen by jus soli ? Would it be a Mexican citizen?
Now imagine that instead of an underground passage, any of the events occurs in one of the following situations:
- She has jumped across the border line, but has not yet landed (okay, hard to imagine a child being born in this short of a time, but surely a crime could be committed while in the air)
- She is in an airplane crossing the airspace over Arizona
- She is an astronaut on the International Space Station, which happens to pass over Arizona in its orbit.
If there is any difference between the "jumping", "airplane", and "space station" answers, why? Is there a specific altitude at which territorial jurisdiction expires?