What is the standard of proof for violations of 47 CFR 97, the amateur (ham) radio regulations? Is it preponderance of the evidence or beyond reasonable doubt?
The FCC addresses this.
As a general matter, the standard of proof is the “preponderance of the evidence” standard. See, e.g., Application of Ameritech Michigan Pursuant to Section 271 of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, to provide In-Region InterLATA Services in Michigan, Memorandum Opinion and Order, 12 FCC Rcd 20543, 20568-69, paras. 45-46, n.87 (1997); Bender v. Clark, 744 F.2d 1424, 1429 (10th Cir. 1984) (“The traditional standard required in a civil or administrative proceeding is proof by a preponderance of the evidence [and t]he traditional preponderance standard must be applied unless the type of case and the sanctions or hardship imposed require a higher standard.”)
Reasonable doubt is the standard for criminal prosecutions, which are not included in 47 CFR Part 97.