There's multiple layers of laws and contracts that apply to fire/smoke detectors:
The fire code (usually on a county layer) can demand certain styles or models of smoke detectors. They can be requested at the fire department. For example, Denver's Handout indicates:
Smoke alarms are required in every residential dwelling or
sleeping unit, including single-family homes.
Every multi-family residential facility is required to have
smoke alarms, whether battery-operated or hard-wired with
Smoke alarms are required in every bedroom, outside each
sleeping area, and on every level of the home including the
Required: Denver Fire Code requires that you have your
smoke alarms inspected and tested at least monthly and at
intervals not less than that required by the manufacturer’s
published instructions. You may hire someone to do this,
you may do it yourself or, if you live in a multi-family
residential facility, your management may take care of this.
It is required that the batteries (primary and back up be
changed) to a 10-year lithium-ion battery.
- Required: As the homeowner, you must fill out a
residential Fire Safety Equipment Report and submit
it to the property management or homeowner’s
association annually unless the management is
providing the maintenance for you. You may download
the form at www.denvergov.org/fire.
In Denver's case, altering the type of smoke alarm requires an update to the Fire Safety Equipment Report.
georgia has a fire safety minimum standard that adopts the IFC 2012. Section 907.1 is all about fire alarm systems:
The State's minimum requirements for fire alarm systems in proposed (new) buildings and structures approved as set forth in 103.3.1 of this Code shall be as required by NFPA 101, Life Safety Code, as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3. Fire alarm systems shall be designed, installed, tested, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm and Signaling Code, as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3. (b) New fire alarm systems to be installed in existing buildings shall be designed, installed, and maintained in accordance with NFPA 72, as adopted by this Chapter 120-3-3. (Refer to Table 102. 13 — CODES REFERENCE GUIDE)
Pursuant to O.C.G.A. 25-2-14.1(b), every proposed building and structure listed in paragraph (1) of subsection (b) of O.C.G.A. 25-2-13 shall comply with the adopted minimum fire safety standards that were in effect on the date that plans and specifications therefore were received by the proper fire official for review and approval. Complete plans for proposed (new) buildings and structures recorded as received by the authority having jurisdiction for review prior to the effective date of this Chapter, may be reviewed under the codes, standards, and Rules and Regulations of the Safety Fire Commissioner in force prior to the effective date of this Chapter.
Noncompliance with the code might result in a fine or even a criminal offense.
Depending on the homeowner's insurance, a specific model, type, or even manufacturer of smoke detectors might be prescribed. Usually, the one renting the apartment would need to inquire with the landlord to learn if such a thing is in the contract.
Noncompliance means that the place is not covered by insurance.
The lease might contain a passage if you are allowed to do any work on the smoke detector. I know that my sister's last rental contract did have a clause that she wasn't allowed even to touch the smoke detectors and that they were to be serviced by a specific company.
Noncompliance can be used as a reason to break the lease extraordinarily.