Albert, the husband of Victoria, was the only Prince Consort in post-conquest English/UK history. It was a title created specifically for him because the establishment and the country didn’t like him very much.
The titles of the five pre-Victorian male consorts varied widely. Mary I of England's husband Philip was declared king jure uxoris and given powers equal to his wife while she reigned, but Queen Anne's husband Prince George of Denmark received no British titles other than the Dukedom of Cumberland (his princely title being Danish). Meanwhile, the official title of the three husbands of Mary, Queen of Scots was never fully resolved. At least one (Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley), was declared king consort, and both he and his predecessor Francis II of France sought recognition as king jure uxoris (under a proffered theory of the "Crown Matrimonial of Scotland"), but the title and powers of the consort were a constant issue during Mary's reign and remained unresolved when Mary was captured and executed.
Philip was not Prince Consort, he was made a British Prince - the same title held by his sons.
The only legal requirement is the oath
The Coronation Oaths Act 1688 requires the oath to be taken by the Monarch and specifies its form. This is the only thing required to make the coronation legal.
Everything else is due to religion, tradition, and choice.
It is not true that all Queen consorts have been crowned
In general, when the King was married at the time of the coronation, the Queen consort was also crowned. However, there have been exceptions.
When the King married after the coronation, sometimes there was a coronation for the Queen consort but often there wasn’t.